A damaged or worn hip joint can cause a great deal of pain and discomfort. It can happen when the cartilage that lines the ball and socket hip joint gets worn away which leaves the bone exposed and rather than the usual fluid movement of the joint, the joint becomes stiff and painful. Without the protective layer of cartilage, it can lead to the wearing of the joint. If no other pain relief or alternative treatment works, then a doctor or surgeon may recommend hip replacement surgery.
What Is Hip Replacement Surgery?
Hip replacement surgery is a procedure that removes the bones in the hip joint that are rubbing together and replaces the joint with a new artificial joint, also known as a prosthesis. Depending on the level of wear, as well as other factors dependent on your circumstances, the artificial joint may be made of metal, plastic or ceramic.
A mammogram is a type of x-ray that is conducted on your breasts to detect any changes. Mammography can help with the early detection of breast cancer before you notice any signs or symptoms.
For 96% of women, a mammogram breast screening will have normal results. For around 4% of women, the x-ray results may not be clear or could show an abnormality. If this is the case, then you may be called back for more tests or to have the mammogram retaken.
What Can a Mammogram Show?
Primarily, a mammogram is to detect the early stages of breast cancer, this may not necessarily be a lump, but could be an area of calcium, also called calcification. Calcification in the breast does not necessarily mean it will lead to cancer, but medical professionals can examine the changes of calcification within the breast to look for patterns which may be related to cancer.
A hysterectomy is a medical procedure that removes the womb (uterus) from the body. There are many reasons why this procedure may take place, and after the procedure, you will be unable to become pregnant.
Why Might I Need a Hysterectomy?
Hysterectomies usually take place when there is an issue or condition that affects the reproductive system. Hysterectomies are considered as an appropriate treatment for a range of conditions if no other surgery or medicine has been effective. Some conditions which may be treated by a hysterectomy include:
- Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding
- Womb, ovary or cervical cancer
- Fibroids and non-cancerous tumours
- Pelvic pain and uterine prolapse
- Endometriosis and adenomyosis